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中医 ①traditional Chinese medicine②traditional Chinesephysician ①中医学的简称。②本学科专业职业队伍。
中药 Chinesemateria medica 在中医理论指导下应用的药物。包括中药材、中药饮片和中成药等。
中医学 traditionalChinese medicine 以中医药理论与实践经验为主体，研究人类生命活动中健康与疾病转化规律及其预防、诊断、治疗、康复和保健的综合性科学。
中药学 Chinese materiamedica 中药学科的统称。研究中药基本理论和各种药材饮片、中成药的来源、采制、性能、功效、临床应用等知识的学科。
中医药 traditionalChinese medicine and pharmacology
中药：Chinese materiamedica，Chinese medicinals(包括植物药、动物药、矿物药等）
中草药：Chinese HerbalMedicine,Chinese medicinal herbs
中西医结合 integration of traditional and western medicine
中医基础理论 basictheory of traditional Chinese medicine
中医诊断学 diagnostics of traditional Chinese medicine
方剂学 prescriptions of Chinese materia medica，
Traditional Chinese Medical Formulae/ prescriptions
中医内科学 internal medicine of traditional Chinese medicine
[阴阳]The Theory of Yinand Yang
阴阳对立：Opposition of yin and yang
阴阳制约：Restriction of/between yin and yang
阴阳互根：Interdependence of yin and yang
阴阳消长：Waxing and waning of yin and yang
阴阳转化：Inter-transformation of yin and yang
[五行学说]The Theory of Five Elements
克： act, restrict,restrain
乘：overact,over-restrict, over-restrain, subjugate, overwhelm
侮：counteract,counter-restrict, counter-restrain, rebel
[整体观念] concept of organicwholeness
生长化收藏 sprouting, growth, transformation, ripening, storage
内外环境统一性 the unity between the internal and external environments
机体自身整体性 the integrity of the body itself
古代唯物论和辩证法 classic Chinese materialism and dialectics
矛盾统一the contradictory unity
互相联系、相互影响related to each other and influence each other
标本 Biao (secondary aspect) and Ben (primary aspect)
本质与现象nature and phenomena
矛盾的普遍性和特殊性universality and speciality of contradictions
寒者热之Cold disease should be treated by warm therapy
热者寒之warm disease should be treated by cold therapy
虚者补之deficiency syndrome should be treated by tonifying therapy
实者泻之excess syndrome should be treated by purgation therapy
治病必求其本 Treatment of diseases must concentrate on the root cause
同病异治 treatment of the same disease with different therapeutic methods
异病同治 treatment of different diseases with the same therapeutic method
清阳为天 The lucid Yang ascends to form the heaven
浊阴为地 The turbid Yin descends to constitute the earth
气化 Qi transformation
升降出入 ascending,descending, going out, coming in
If the activities of going out and coming into stop, the transforming mechanism of Shen (Spirit) will be damaged; if the activities of ascending and descending stop, Qi will be immediately isolated and endangered.
精气 Jingqi (Essential-Qi)
先天之精 prenatal essence
后天之精 postnatal essence
神 Shen (spirit)
形神学说 the theory of body and spirit
形与神俱 the body and the Shen (Spirit) exist simultaneously
形神统一 the unity between the body and the Shen (Spirit)
Sufficient Healthy-Qi inside the body will prevent invasion of pathogenic factors.
The region where pathogenic factors invades must be deficient in Qi.
Abidance to the changes of the four seasons, active adapation to cold and heat, harmony of emotional changes and peaceful living.
cultivating health, preventing disease and prolonging life
气化 qi transformation
气机 qi movement
元气（原气）primordial ( yuan qi)
真气genuine qi (zhenqi)
宗气pectoral qi (zong qi)
营气nutritive qi( yingqi)
卫气defensive qi(wei qi)
气的推动功能 promoting action of Qi
气的温煦功能 warming actionof Qi
气的防御功能 defending action of Qi
气的固摄功能 controlling action of Qi
气的气化功能 action of Qi Transformation
水谷精微 cereal essence
营气和津液 nutrient qiand body fluid
营养和滋润 nourishing and moistening
Blood is responsible for nurturing body.
The middle energizer receives qi, takes the juice and transforms into red liquid called blood.
血虚 blood deficiency/asthenia
血瘀 blood stasis/stagnation
津液Body fluid /Jin and Ye
成分，功能，分布property, function, distribution
胆汁、肠液、鼻涕、眼泪、汗液、尿液gastric juice, intestinal juice, nasal discharge, tears, sweat, urine
脾的传输transmitting of thespleen
肺的宣降dispersing and descenging of the lung
肾的蒸腾气化steaming and transforming of the kidney
三焦为通道the triple energizerserve as the passage-way
After food and water have entered the stomach, they are digested and transformed into food essence and then, transmitted upward to the spleen, which disperses the essence upward to the lung and the lung regulates water pathways downward to the urinary bladder. And by doing so body fluid is finally disseminated to all parts of the body along all the meridians and collaterals.
Body fluid is formed from food and water by digestion and absorption of the stomach, separating the clarity from the turbidity of the small intestine and tramformation of the spleen; the distribution and excretion of body fluid are accomplished by the joint action of many zang-fu organ, such as the transforming function of the spleen, the dispersing and descending function of the lung, the steaming and ascending function of the kidney; and body fluid takes triple energizer as its passage way for distribution and excretion.
[藏象学说]The Theory of Visceral Manifestations
脏腑 the internalorgans, viscera.
藏/脏 solid organs, viscera, depots, zang organs, yin organs
府/腑 hollow organs, bowels (the intestines), palaces, fu organs, yang organs
五脏 five viscera,five zang organs, the yin organs
六腑 six bowels, six fu organs, the yang organs
heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney
gallbladder, stomach, large intestine, smallintestine, (urinary) bladder, triple energizer/burner
奇恒之腑 extraordinary fu organs
brain, marrow, bone, vessel, gallbladder, uterus
上/中/下焦 upper/ middle/lower energizer/burner
命门 gate of life, life gate, vital gate, gate of vitality
苗窍 signal orifice
膻中 thoracic center
五神 five emotions
五华 five lustre
五体 five bodyconstituents
五志 five minds
五液 five humors
七情 seven emotions
丹田Dantan /Elixir field
赤白肉际：dorso-ventral boundary (of the hand or foot),
house of blood (血府): blood vessel
house of marrow (髓府): bone
sea of blood (血海): liver (orconception vessel)
sea of marrow (髓海): brain
blood chamber (血室): uterus (orconception vessel)
essence chamber (精室):life gate
藏精气而不泻 storing essencewithout leaking
传化物而不藏 digesting andtransporting food and drink without storing essence /transform food into essence but not store it
心主血脉。The heart governs the blood and (blood ) vessels.
The heart regulates the flow of blood.(circulation)
心藏神。The heart stores the spirit.
心开窍于舌。The heart opens into the tongue.
舌为心之苗窍。The tongue is the sprout of the heart.
The Heart’s brilliance manifests in the face.
The heart’s bloom is in the face.
The heart has its outward manifestations on theface.
The heart stands in interior-exterior relationship with the small intestine.
The lung governs qi.
The lung regulates the waterways.
The lungs move and adjust the Water Channels.
The lung governs the skin and [body] hair.
The lung is in charge of the body surface.
The lung is interrelated with the skin and [body]hair.
The brilliance of the Lungs manifests in the bodyhair.
In other words, the Lungs regulate the secretion of sweat, the moistening of the skin, and resistance to External Pernicious Influences.
肺开窍于鼻。The lung opens at thenose.
鼻为息道。The nose is the“thoroughfare for respiration”.
Many common nose and throat disorders aretherefore treated through the Lungs.
The lung stands in interior-exterior relationship with the large intestine.
The lung governs qi and the heart governs blood.
The lung is the receptacle that holds phlegm and the spleen is the source of phlegm formation.
The lung is the governor of qi and the kidney is the root of qi.
The lung is in charge of the body surface.
The lung governs qi, performs respiration/controlls breathing
主宣发肃降governs disseminating, cleansing and descending/ governs diffusion, purification and descending
通调水道 regulates the waterways
The lung connecting all vessels/The lung faces all the blood vessels, governs management and regulation
The spleen governs movement （transportation) and transformation of grain and water and distribution of its essence.
The spleen manages the blood.
The spleen governs the flesh and limbs, and opens into the mouth.
Take in, food intake
Decompose, digest food into chyme
The stomach governs intake and decomposition (digestion) of grain and water.
Send clarity (pure) upward
The small intestine governs separation of theclear and the turbid.
the large intestine governs transformation and conveyance of waste.
The liver governs free coursing, which refers toliver qi’s physiological function of ensuring smooth free flow (of qi and blood).
Ensuring smooth and regular floe of qi;
Secretion and discharge of bile
Emotional disturbance: mental depression, impatience,etc.
The liver stores blood.
The liver is capable of retaining blood and regulating the amount of blood in the body.
Food qi enters the stomach and sends essence to the liver.
The liver governs the sinews; its bloom is the nails.
The liver governs the sinews: the movement of all the sinews of the body is associated with the liver.
肝开窍于目。The liver opens atthe eyes.
The kidney stores essence (or essential qi), andis responsible for growth, development, and reproduction. （maturation)
The kidney governs the bones and engenders marrow.
The kidney governs water.
The kidney opens into the ears and the two yin(the two private parts: the urethra and anus) and its bloom is in the hair of the head.
moisten and nourish 滋养和濡润
warm and activate推动和温煦
produce and store essence 化生和贮藏精气
receive, trsport and transform water and food 受盛和传化水谷
Viscera inside the body must manifest themselves externally.
Kidney yin and kidney yang are in reality two antagonistic and complementary aspects of kidney essential qi.
Detriment (damage or harm) to yin affects yang.
Detriment to yang affects yin
邪，病邪 Evil; Pathogenic factor; Pathogen
六淫six excesses; six exogenous pathogenic factors; six climatic pathogenic factors; Six external pernicious influences
风、寒、暑、湿、燥、火 wind, cold,summer-heat, dampness, dryness,fire
外感六淫diseases caused by exogenous pathogenic factor
六气Six qi; Six natural factors;Six climatic factors; Six climatic influences；Six exogenous qi
疫疠（疠气）Pestilence; pestilential qi
内生五邪 Five Endogenous Pathogenic Factors; Five Internal Pernicious Influences
七情 seven emotions; seven affects
喜、怒、忧、思、悲、恐、惊 joy, anger, melancholy (sadness, worry), anxiety (pensiveness, contemplation), grief (sorrow), fear, fright
七情内伤internal damage due to seven emotions
饮食Improper diet; imbalanced diet
Internal damage of the spleen and stomach will result in the occurrence of various diseases./The occurrence of various diseases may result from the internal damage of the spleen and stomach.
跌打损伤，金刃伤，虫兽咬伤 Traumatic injuries due to fall, cuts, insect or animal bites
瘀血 Blood stasis