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无语法概念的误译

文章出处:佳音特 网站编辑:etrans发表时间:2018-12-26 10:22



逐词死译,没有英语语法概念会导致误译,由于汉语是一种有形态变化的语言,有些汉译英误译的错误类型是对英语的词形不注意造成的:例如:
 

1.他有两个颇有说服力的理由。
 

[误译]He has two quite convinced reasons.
 

[正译]He has two quite convincing reasons.
 
 
[评析]弄混现在分词与过去分词用法,是常见错误。Convinced是过去分词,具有“被说服”、“信服”的意思。应改为现在分词convincing ,即“有说服力”的意思。
 
 
2.写作的技巧比起其他艺术的技巧来相当困难。
 
 
[误译]The technique of writing is rather difficult comparing with that of the other arts.
 
 
[正译]The technique of writing is rather difficult compared with that of the other arts.

 
[评析]用compare with翻译“和......对比”这样的汉语句型时,一般应译为过去分词结构来表示被动的意味。
 
 
3.录音机为学习外语提供了方便。

 
[误译]Learning foreign languages has been facilitated by recording machines.
 
 
[正译]Recording machines facilitate learning foreign languages.
 
 
[评析]facilitate这个词要求名词或动名词作宾语,而且几乎不用被动语态。
 
 
4.随着现代化发明的出现简化了家务事。
 
 
[误译]Housework is facilitated with the advent of modem inventions.
 
 
[正译]Modern inventions facilitate housework.
 
 
[评析]facilitate的意思是“使容易”、“使便利”,它不以人作主语,不用于被动语态,因为它本身已包含被动的意思。像这种本身包含被动意味的词组还很多,例如:
 
 
To abide by    遵守,to abound with(in)    充满,to accord with    符合,to add up to    总起来意味着,to brim over with    充满,come in for    受到
 
 
5.高举邓小平理论的伟大旗帜是这次大会的灵魂,把邓小平理论确立为我们党的指导思想是这次大会的最主要成果。
 
 
[误译]Hold high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory has been the soul of conference and identifying 
 
 
Deng Xiaoping Theory as a guiding ideology of the whole Party is the most important outcome of this congress.

 
[正译]Holding high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory has been the soul of conference and identifying 
 
 
Deng Xiaoping Theory as a guiding ideology of the whole Party is the most important outcome of this congress.
 
 
[评析]汉语中一些动词,如原文中的“高举”,看似没有主语,有些译者很可能译成英语动词原型Hold high。这就成了祈使句,因为动词原型常被理解成“命令式”,即请大家高举,应当避免这种译法。汉语有相当多的无主句,而英语一般要求主谓宾要全,对汉译英转换时的句子结构的把握是确保不出现语法错误的关键。






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