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中国历史常用术语中英对照-秦汉

文章出处:网络整理 网站编辑:etrans发表时间:2019-01-15 10:13

  • 深圳翻译公司
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  • 秦朝 Qin dynasty 或者 Chin dynasty
  • 秦始皇 Qin Shi Huang Emperor,First Emperor of Qin 或者 Shi Huang Ti
  • 兵马俑 Terracotta Warriors
  • 焚书坑儒 Burning of Books and Burying of Confucianism Scholars
  • 陈胜吴广起义 Dazexiang Uprising
  • 郡县制 Administrative system with prefectures and counties,有的地方也说成commanderies and districts
  • 灵渠 Ling Canal
  • 阿房宫 Epang Palace
  • 封禅:一般的处理方式是说Fengshan然后解释,比如a type of ceremony held on Mount Tai where the emperor would offer sacrifices to the heavenly king
  • 楚汉战争 Chu-Han Contention
  • 西楚霸王 Prince of Western Chu
  • 汉朝 Han dynasty
  • 匈奴:现在一般都叫Xiongnu了,以前很多人叫他们Huns,但是这个争议比较大,因为这个词原本是指欧洲的匈人的
  • 冒顿单于 Modu Chanyu
  • 军臣单于 Gunchen Chanyu
  • 东胡 Donghu 或者 Eastern Hu
  • 游牧民族 Nomadic people
  • 南蛮 Southern Barbarians
  • 百越 Hundred Yue Tribes 或者 Hundred Viet Tribes
  • 文景之治 Great Reigns of Emperor Wen and Emperor Jing
  • 七国之乱 Rebellion of seven feudatory states
  • 罢黜百家独尊儒术 (to) Promote Confucianism and suppress other schools of thoughts
  • 史记 Record of the Grand Historian 或者就叫 Shiji
  • 二十四史 The 24 Official History Accounts 或者 The 24 Official Histories
  • 丝绸之路 Silk Road
  • 龟兹:现在一般就叫Qiuci,但比较老的文献用的是Kucha,Kutsi或者Kucina,即库车
  • 焉耆 Yanqi,Karachar或者Karasahr
  • 疏勒:常见的就是Shule,或者就用现地名喀什Kashgar来指代
  • 月氏 Yueh-Chi 或者 Ro-Chi
  • 康居 Sogdiana
  • 大宛 Dayuan 或 Tayuan
  • 拔汗那(其实就是费尔干纳) Ferghana
  • 大夏 Bactria
  • 朝鲜半岛汉四郡 Four Commanderies of Han in Korean Peninsula 或者 Four Counties of Han in Korean Peninsula
  • 贵霜 Kushan
  • 安息 Parthia
  • 大秦 Roman Empire
  • 河西走廊 River-west Corridor, River-west Aisle, Hexi Corridor 或者直接 Hexi
  • 玉门关 Yumen Pass 或者 Jade Gate Pass
  • 罪己诏 Edict of Introspection
  • 西域都护府(西汉) Western Region Protectorate
  • 西域长史府(东汉)Western Region Chief Administration Bureau
  • 高句丽 Goguryeo
  • 新朝 Xin dynasty
  • 光武中兴 The Reign of Emperor Guangwu
  • 造纸术 Paper-making technology
  • 黄巾起义 Yellow Turbans Uprising
  • 吕布 Lyu Bu,Lv Bu 或者 Lu Bu
  • 赤壁之战 Battle of Red Cliffs
  • 察举制:这个貌似没见过专门的对应,所以就还是直接说Cha Ju system,然后加以说明,比如nominate (recommend) prospective government officials based on their filial morality and honesty
  • 九品中正制:记得在哪里见过它被叫做Nine-rank system,但是这么说了也等于没说,所以我觉得还是按照上面的处理,说拼音Jiu Pin Zhong Zheng system 然后加说明,比如nominate government officials based on their social status in the hierarchy of nine grades
  • 三公九卿 Three Councillors and Nine Ministers/Chamberlains
  • 丞相/宰相 Chancellor
  • 司马 Chancellor of Wars
  • 司徒 Chancellor of Masses
  • 司空 Chancellor of Constructions 或者 Chancellor of Works
  • 太常卿 Minister of Ceremonies
  • 卫尉卿 Minister of Defense 或者 Minister of Guards
  • 光禄卿 Minister of Imperial Household
  • 廷尉(后来的大理寺卿) Minister of Justice
  • 宗正 Minister of Royal Clan
  • 大司农 Minister of Finance
  • 汉朝皇帝的叫法,举两个例子,剩下的都一样:汉高祖 Emperor Gaozu of Han,汉武帝 Emperor Wu of Han
  • 刺史 Cishi, the provincial-level governor
  • 州牧 Zhoumu,the provincial-level governor
  • 太守 Taishou,the prefectural-level governor
  • 县令 Xianling,the county-level governor 或者 county magistrate
  • 中郎 Inner Gentleman
  • 中郎将 Leader of court gentlemen
  • 汉赋 Rhapsody poetry of Han dynasty 或者就叫 Fu Poetry
  • 汉书 Book of Han
  • 后汉书 Book of Later Han
  • 盐铁论 Discourses on Salt and Iron
  • 金缕玉衣 A jade suit with golden wires
  • 九章算术 Nine Chapters of Mathematics
  • 昭君出塞 Wang Zhaojun’s Marriage to Xiongnu


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