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中国历史常用术语中英对照-1

文章出处:未知 网站编辑:etrans发表时间:2019-01-23 13:23

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  • 谥号 Posthumous name (比如汉武帝的武、晋元帝的元)
  • 庙号 Temple name(比如唐太宗的太宗、元世祖的世祖)
  • 年号 Era name 或者 Reign name(比如贞观、嘉靖、康熙)
  • 尊号 Regnal name(比如武则天的则天)
  • 姓 Surname 或者 Family name
  • 氏(先秦)Secondary surname 或者 Clan name (比如孔子姓是子,氏是孔)
  • 名 Given name
  • 字 Courtesy name 或者 Style name
  • 号 Art name
  • 名讳 True name
  • 乳名 Birth name
  • 法号 Dharma name
  • 训名 School name
  • 避讳 Taboo of names
  • 爵位 Nobility rank
  • 太子 Crown Prince
  • 九爵 Nine orders of nobility
  • 亲王 Prince
  • 郡王 Prefecture/Commandery Prince
  • 国公 Duke
  • 郡公 Prefecture/Commandery Duke
  • 县公 County/District Duke
  • 侯爵 Marquis
  • 伯爵 Count
  • 子爵 Viscount
  • 男爵 Baron
  • 世袭的 Hereditary
  • 封建 to enfeoff
  • 皇后 Empress
  • 妃 Consort 或 highly-ranked imperial concubines
  • 品秩 Grade/Rank in the Bureaucracy
  • 正一品 First Rank Officials
  • 从一品 Sub-First Rank Officials
  • 正四品上 Upper Fourth Rank Official
  • 正四品下 Lower Fourth Rank Official
  • 从四品上 Upper Sub-Fourth Rank Official
  • 从四品下 Lower Sub-Fourth Rank Official
  • 另外官品还有一种简记法,比如正一品是1a,从一品是1b,正四品上是4a,正四品下是4a’,从四品上是4b,从四品下是4b’
  • 奉朝请 People who qualified for imperial audiences
  • 千牛卫 Imperial personal guard
  • 千牛备身 Swordsmen in the personal guard
  • 食邑 Feudatory land
  • 官 Bureaucrat
  • 吏 Government staff
  • 四民 Four occupations(士农工商分别是gentry scholars,peasants,craftsmen以及merchants)
  • 军阀的派系 Clique of xxx
  • 凌迟 Death by a thousand cuts 或者就叫 Lingchi 然后解释是一种cruel execution
  • 腰斩 Death by cutting the waist
  • 绞刑 Death by hanging
  • 车裂 Death by dismembering the body
  • 廷杖 Tingzhang, a type of punishment that the guilty official would be spanked by wooden planks
  • 流放 Be banished/exiled to + 地名
  • 追封 Posthumous enfeoffment
  • 钦差大臣 Imperial government inspector
  • 监正 Supervisor of xxx directorate
  • 诏书 Edict
  • 奏章 Memorial to the emperor
  • 俸禄 Salary for imperial officials
  • 中央集权 Centralization of authority
  • 龙袍 Panlong Robe 或者 Chinese Imperial Dragon Robe
  • 衙门 Administrative Office
  • 中书令 Secretariat Director
  • 中书舍人 Secretariat Drafter
  • 中书门下 Secretariat-Chancellery
  • 同中书门下平章事 Joint Manager of Affairs with the Secretariat-Chancellery
  • 中散大夫 Grand Master of Palace Leisure
  • 大理寺 Imperial Court of Justice
  • 鸿卢寺 Office of Foreign Affairs
  • 光禄寺 Office of Imperial Kitchen
  • 著作局 Editorial office
  • 转运使 Transport Commissioner
  • 处置使 Supervisory Commissioner, an official that arranges and disposes of matters
  • 黜陟使 Personnel Evaluation Commissioner, an official that evaluates, promotes or demotes other officials
  • 国子监 Directorate of Education
  • 将作院 Imperial Manufactories Commission
  • 御史台 Censorate
  • 法司 Judicial office
  • 翰林院 Hanlin Academy, an organization in the central court with scholars who did drafting and editing works for the emperor
  • 京兆尹 Metropolitan governor of capital city
  • 教坊司 Imperial office of music
  • 东宫 The House of Crown Prince 或者 The Eastern Palace for Crown Prince
  • 谏议大夫 Supervisory officer
  • 光禄大夫 Grand Master of the Palace 其中金紫光禄大夫在后面加with golden seal and purple ribbon,银青光禄大夫在后面加with silver seal and blue ribbon
  • 假节:一般说Jiajie,然后解释,an official with a special warrant/permission to represent the emperor
  • 主簿 Recorder 或者 assistant magistrate
  • 主书 Assistant drafters
  • 主事 Director/secretary of xxx section in xxx ministry
  • 主司 Examiner 或者 recruiter,相当于古代政府的HR
  • 漕运:一般来说就是Caoyun,然后解释是 ground and water transportation operated/controlled by the government
  • 茶马交易 Tea-Horse Trade
  • 羁縻制度 Jimi system (A special type of administrative system enforced by Tang and Song dynasties in remote areas where hereditary tribal rulers receive duties from the central court while keeping the high degree of autonomy),和后来明朝的土司制度相似 Tusi system (土司本人有时翻译成Chieftains或者Local headmen)
  • 进士 Nominees who passed the highest-level Imperial Examinations (court exams 殿试),有地方直接说是Jnshi(复数Jinshies)并解释是Imperial examination graduates,其中进士及第是distinguished jinshies,进士出身是xxx with jinshi background,同进士出身是along with jinshi background
  • 贡士 Nominees who passed the national-level Imperial Examinations
  • 举人 Recommendees/nominees who passed the local-level (provincial-level) Imperial Examinations
  • 秀才/生员 Scholars/Educated people (qualified for local-level Imperial Examinations)
  • 童生 Scholars haven’t qualified for the local-level Imperial Examinations
  • 冈仁波齐 Mount Kailash
  • 葱岭 Pamir Plateau
  • 兴都库什山 Hindukush Mountains
  • 燕然山 Khangai Mountains
  • 华阳国志 Chronicles of Huayang
  • 三字经 Three Character Classic
  • 百家姓 Hundred Family Surnames
  • 千字文 Thousand Character Classic

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